Phonetics and Phonology

1. True or Falsea. ___ All speech sounds are either vowels or consonants.b. _____ In English, when either a voiceless alveolar stop or a voiced alveolar stop occurs between a stressed and an unstressed vowel, both phonemes become voiced alveolar flaps.c. _____ Essentially a hold-over from Medieval Norman French, in English, the form of the plural morpheme (either /s/, /z/ or /?z/) essentially “elides”: that is, it depends on the vocal attributes of the word-initial phoneme in the very next word.d. _____ With the exception of vowels adjacent to “r”, the schwa is the symbol for all vowels in an unstressed position.2. Explain the phonological distribution of the allophones of /s/ in English plurals. Use examples. (2.5 pts.) 3. Explain the phonological distribution of the past tense in English. Use examples. (2.5 pts.)4. In Alice in Wonderland, when the hookah-smoking caterpillar sings: “a, e, i, o, u,” four of the vowel sounds are “tense” while the remaining one is a ___________________.5. Transcribe each of these sentences into English. State whether or not the sentence is ambiguous lexically and/or syntactically. (2.5 pts. each)a. /ajdlajktusið?b?f?lohajd/b. /ð?bojs?ð?mænwI??t?l?skop/c. /ðIswIlmekjusmort/6. For each of the eight phonemes below, give a word that contains its particular sound:a. /I/b. /?/c. /æ/d. /?/e. /?/f. /U/g. /?/h. /a/7. Which of the following is NOT a minimal pair? Explain your answer. (2.5 pts.)a. fate/fought b. chimp/limp c. cough/tough d. canned/can’t 8. At its most complex, phonological level, the phoneme /t/ in American English actually has six allophones, whose conditioning environments are summarized in the following table.Articulatory Phonetic Conditioning Example description symbol environmentReleased, aspirated [th] syllable-initial tinUnreleased, [?t] word-final, after a vowel kit pre-glottalizedGlottal stop [?] before a syllabic /n/ kittenFlap [?] between vowels when the first vowel is stressed pittedAlveopalatal stop [t] syllable-initial before /r/ truckReleased, unaspirated [t] when the above conditions are not met first stint Using the chart above, first identify the allophone of /t/ in each of the following words, then give the conditioning environment: (2 pts. each)Word Allophone of /t/ Environmenta. after b. beautiful c. embitter d. that e. cotton f. cent g. substance9. For each of the following questions, provide the required phoneme and an illustrative word. (2 pts. each)a. One Romance language lacks a phoneme that is –continuant, +voiced, +sonorant, and +velar. What is an English word that would therefore be hard for a native speaker of that Romance language to master? phoneme _______ word __________b. Spanish speakers lack a phoneme that is –voiced, +fricative, +interdental, and +continuant. Give an English word that begins with this sound. phoneme _______ word __________c. Vietnamese has no –anterior, +voiced, +sonorant, +bilabial glide. What is an English word that begins with this sound which is very difficult for a native Vietnamese? phoneme _______ word __________d. Koreans have only one affricate, the –voiced one. Write an English word that begins with a sound troublesome for Koreans. phoneme _______ word __________e. Mandarin Chinese has a phonological rule that prevents words from ending in a phoneme that can be characterized as +sonorant, -continuant, -coronal, +anterior, and +voiced. Write an English word that ends in this phoneme. phoneme _______ word __________10. Following are listed the phonetic transcriptions of twelve English “words.” Some are actual words, some are possible or nonsense words, and others are not possible because they violate English phonological sequential constraints. Mark each accordingly. (2 pts. each)Actual Word Possible Not Possible a. /pril/ b. /skri?/ c. /know/ d. /maj/ e. /gnostic/ f. /jun?korn/ g. /blaft/ h. /?ar/ i. /æp?pl?kt?k/ j. /ðræft/ k. /bawl?n/ l. /frumi?s/11. Using IPA do a phonetic transcription of the following passage. Note: a) you must be consistent in your version of the IPA for the fricatives and affricates; b) as this is a phonetic and NOT a phonological transcription, you do NOT need to use the American English allophones of /p/, /t/, and /k/. (24 points)Noam Chomsky wrote that by studying language, we may discover “abstract principles that govern its structure and use, principles that are universal by biological necessity and not mere historical accident. . . A normal child acquires this knowledge on relatively slight exposure and without specific training. He can then quite effortlessly make use of an intricate structure of specific rules and guiding principles to convey his thoughts and feelings to others, arousing in them novel ideas and subtle perceptions and judgments. For the conscious mind, it remains a distant goal to reconstruct and comprehend what the child has done intuitively and with minimal effort… Language . . . is a product of human intelligence, created anew in each individual by operations that lie far beyond the reach of will or consciousness.”